Whether or not you believe what Jesus says (and He does provide everyone with this choice), He makes His position as God very clear.
1) The Jews want to kill Him (16)
It’s only chapter 5, and the Jews are already having problems with this guy. Why? They want to shut Him up, because of His self-proclamation of equality with the God they worship. He’s ruining their world view and social structure. A “prophet” or anything else wouldn’t have a target on his back like that. Jesus is more.
His “work” on the Sabbath, which is the Pharisees’ justification, only solidifies His assertion as God.
2) He mimics the Father (19)
When people impersonate one another, they’re aspiring to be their equal (or greater). Jesus isn’t acting like the Father as a religious exercise. His equality with God is already set up.
3) He judges (22, 27)
Only an authority, one who is revered, is in a position to judge others. A court room judge is one that demands high honor and is the ultimate authority to determine a criminal’s fate. Likewise, this authority has been given to Jesus over all men.
4) He dictates life and death (21, 28-29)
Not only does Jesus judge the moral standing of men, but the terms of their very lives and deaths! That might change your mind about the true identity of the grim reaper, who apparently doesn’t exist in the realm of Christianity, for there is no need.
5) He operates through the Father (30)
As the human embodiment of God, Jesus only does what the Father tells Him. While this might seem like Jesus is subordinate, it is quite the opposite. His human nature is what makes Him “less”, but His activity as God is what makes Him so much more.
6) He doesn’t receive honor from men (34, 41)
The Lord deserves and honors worship, but it is not from men that He earns His approval. His actions reflect this as He lives the remainder of His life looking to do the Father’s will rather than succumbing to the pressure of His peers or any other authority.
The fifth chapter of John makes Jesus’ deity very clear, both by His own proclamation and by reputation. The question is not whether or not He is God or a prophet, but whether or not you believe who He says He is.